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In FSW, a cylindrical-shouldered tool, with a profiled threaded/unthreaded probe (nib or pin) is rotated at a constant speed and fed at a constant traverse rate into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material, which are butted together. The parts have to be clamped rigidly onto a backing bar in a manner that prevents the abutting joint faces from being forced apart. The length of the nib is slightly less than the weld depth required and the tool shoulder should be in intimate contact with the work surface. The nib is then moved against the work, or vice versa.

Frictional heat is generated between the wear-resistant welding tool shoulder and nib, and the material of the work pieces. This heat, along with the heat generated by the mechanical mixing process and the adiabatic heat within the material, cause the stirred materials to soften without reaching the melting point (hence cited a solid-state process), allowing the traversing of the tool along the weld line in a plasticised tubular shaft of metal. As the pin is moved in the direction of welding, the leading face of the pin, assisted by a special pin profile, forces plasticised material to the back of the pin while applying a substantial forging force to consolidate the weld metal. The welding of the material is facilitated by severe plastic deformation in the solid state, involving dynamic recrystallization of the base material.

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